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Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca Compulsory Health Insurance program started in took advantage of the technical plans and assets of the Compulsory Maternity Insurance, instituted in This latter program assumed responsibility for postpartum and postnatal medical care.

In this service was provided through 12 clinics in its own and 60 associate private centers, while in it counted on public owned clinics and 9 maternity hospitals, all of Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca incorporated within the Compulsory Insurance System. Between and the Health Insurance program managed 8 maternity hospitals, baby clinics and 99 maternity clinics Bernabeu-Mestre and Perdiguero-Gil, Figure 4. The establishment of social insurance measures for childbirth meant that medicine approached territories where it had previously not been active.

While the Maternity Insurance program was in effect during the Republican government, professional midwives continued to be the sole practitioners responsible for attending normal home childbirths, although they were to lose this preminence with the Regulations for Health Services under the Compulsory Health Insurance system of January This new institution eliminated the midwives' independence, reducing them to physician's helpers in all cases of birth and fomented institutional Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca through the provision of free hospital stays of up to 8 days for normal births.

A plan was designed in the mids to construct 'maternity residences' in fact, maternal-infant hospitals to 'bring all births into hospital, and prevent a single beneficiary mother from giving birth in the unsuitable setting of her own home' Asistencia,p.

At the begining of the Insurance program, its regulations stipulated that they should hold pediatric clinics for three days a week, and infant welfare clinics on the other three working days, a division set aside in This single aspect of the insurance for children's medicine shaped the development of the specialty of Pediatrics that subsequently became a hospital based one, and lost its links to child hygiene. The contents of the program for popularizing scientific health counselling.

The title of this section comes from a statement made by a welfare municipal doctor of the city of Madrid in Postres dieta south beach is an urgent need to guide the ignorant and to stop those [ And these words attracts our attention because they reveal the inner rationale of the program for popularizing infant health.

Popular customs and beliefs were 'the real bad thing' which opposed children health Bernabeu, a, p. Such opinions Adelgazar 20 kilos out of a gendered understanding of women as pure biological bodies, sole guardians of their children and homes, by God's will, and weak minds prone to error: 'Women's brain is the best soil to allow Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca the flowering of this kind of aberrations; it is always ready to accept wonders, marvels, supernatural schemes, wild plans brought about by ignorance and fanaticism, by stupid vanity and by illiterate stubbornness' Salcedo,p.

Franco's dictatorship recovered such perspective of women Bernabeu, b, Jiménez Lucena, Ruiz Somavilla and Castellanos Guerrero,p. Same contents Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca periodization have been shown in a recent work on school texts for 'home teaching' de Haro, From a medical perspective clear dangers loomed, grounded on the ambivalent consideration of popular culture, innocent because of its ignorance and not innocent because of its radically strange contents.

Ignorance in itself was an innocent feature, as Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca as it stemmed from the Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca distance i.

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Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca the perdiendo peso time it was deemed guilty due to its 'indelible stigma' of stubbornness, that caused the most ferocious resistance to expert advise Salcedo,pp. This consideration of popular culture put it far away from medical counsels, and the hugest obstacle in the medicalization process, as mothers would always prefer lay aid instead of sound medical expertise Salcedo,p.

The worst risk in deliveries, particularly among poor people, stemmed from the intervention of "wise neighbors [ The cultural closeness, "the same level of instruction", allowed the practice of those women, called saludadoraswho kept "clinics" for children and who, according to doctors complaints, participated a great deal in the solution of health problems of Adelgazar 20 kilos and children.

Perdiguero,p. In some other cases, the population is referred to as a waste land, where, thanks to the plough made by medical advice, the seeds of health would flourish Bravo, In this context, mothers and women are not Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca so much as the enemies, but as the privileged helpers of doctors in the care of children and to highlight health practices throughout the whole population Tolosa, A delicate question was the religious load of many elements of the antagonist popular culture, Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca to the aggressive catholicism of the times between the 19 th and 20 th centuries.

Another, more pragmatic alternative was to accept traditional customs but with a change of meaning. For instance, Benavente, discussing about the evil's eye, offered mothers to christianize their beliefs, by substituting fancy amulets fastened to child's clothes by 'a wallet with the Saint Gospels' to protect their children against diseases such as croup or cerebral palsy, that were real threats to health instead of "the eyes of suspected witches" Benavente, b.

The intimacy of families became the target of the educating campaign in search of changing values that, according to the moralizing tradition of hygiene, leaned on confidence in and compliance with Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca authorities, including medical authority: expert advice should be followed uncritically.

To make it real and in the absence of other means, a military procedure was sought: 'the practice of command, expedient and infallible' Criado,p. These testimonies come from the time of the first military dictatiship undergone by Spain during the 20 th century, albeit Criado, professor of Pediatrics at the Univerisity of Madrid, was a previous defender of this model of education.

Inin a lecture about harmful nursing, he made clear that 'the essential Adelgazar 40 kilos of education is [ And metaphorically, in the case of health education, doctors play the role of parents.

Under Franco's rule, such view was obviously very common Bernabeu, b. The limits assigned to people's education show its null emancipating character. Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca The mother and childone of the journals that convey this message of medicalization, when speaking about 'domestic medicine' in caution against an excessive illustration of mothers was present; the aim is to take mother to accept medical intervention, not to empower them Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca a 'deadly training, a dangerous confidence [in themselves]' Pereira, Doctors' help had to be sought as soon as the slightest change in health is seen, establishing a program much more ambitious than ever since medical popularizing was born in the 18 th century.

And since public charity allows access to medical care, poverty should not be taken for excuse Salcedo,p. The 'maximum program', so to speak, for medicalization of childhood would include the hiring of a doctor by each family, a certified physician who would attend delivery, order him hygienic rules of nursing, especially the feeding routines, as well as, later on, to dispose over Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca exercises and sea baths Rojo,pp.

It is a program well suited to a commercial context of medical Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca, restricted as a rule to the well-off layers of society. A first-class example is furnished by the question of the wet-nurses.

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Among some class of families, the employment of a wet-nurse for the breeding of a new born was a sign of status, as exemplified by an old custom of the Spanish Royal Family; on the other side of the social spectrum, to hold a position as wet-nurse in a foundling home was a sure job for women.

Probably most city councils in the last years of the 19 Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca century secured grants or pensions to feed infants to some poor families. Medicine concerned distinctly about Dietas rapidas of both kinds, although with the single purpose of putting them under professional control.

Since the last years of the 18 th century, medical literature constructed an all-black image of women engaged in wet-nursing, as 'bearers of faulty traditional knowledge' Buchan,p. This basic condition explained the high infant mortality registered in institutions and, conversely, it was taken for granted that the introduction of a wet-nurse in a bourgeois home would lend a negative outcome.

Here, however, medicine found a contradiction in the spread of this supposedly bad habit among the so-called accommodated classes that generated their clientele. Therefore, medicine had to resign to the fact that wet-nurses came out of need, for there was 'quite a few women' that lacked enough milk in quantity or qualityalthough it was firmly stated that new born should not leave the home Peiró,; Cirera,p.

Nevertheless, the 'wet-nursing industry' was only replaced by the 'hygienic milk industry'. In the and editions of his Catecismo de Puericultura, Juan Bosch still defended the employment of wet-nurses Productos para adelgazar del doctor oz home, engaged through a scrupulous selection under medical advise.

And that was the point, the introduction of a doctor into the process of child raising. The prescription of the feeding regime as well as the very election of the nurse must be controlled or supervised by experts.

There is hardly a text in this domain of literature that would not include this claim. Inthe civil government of the province of Madrid opened a section of Wet-nurses' Adelgazar 72 kilos, including the establishment of a Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca, as it was made in the twin service of Hygiene of Prostitutes Castejón, ; Barcelona tried a similar bureau in Coll, Adelgazar 50 kilos least two private agencies.

A campaign organised by Manuel Tolosa and the Spanish Society of Hygiene led to the passing of a Law for the Protection of Childhoodwith the ambitious aim of controlling all children "given to wet-nursing and all those who lived in institutions", although the final influence of this legislation in health matters was scarce Perdiguero and Robles, Scientific and institutional factors acted in the process of development of medical services specialized in children, Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca they were accompanied in a prominent fashion by a broadly sustained social campaign of persuasive power that helped to bring people closer to certified medicine and to turn medical explanations and practices familiar to all.

Nevertheless, the underpinning ideology within this campaign was overtly gender-minded, conspiring to build a passive, harmful and subordinated image of women as far as mothers. In this way, changes and mistakes of certified medicine were concealed, as the scientific origin of many of popular beliefs and customs. Also, a curtain was Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca upon contradictions accepted by doctors between their hygienic reasoning and the attaining of their professional interests, as in the case of wet-nurses.

Looking back at this strategy, it can be understood why if the medicalization campaign was born under a cover of preventive services puericulture of primarily educational nature, after the offer of the public schemes of social insurance forgot all about that to concentrate on diagnosis and treatment instead. Objetivo de la reforma: La reforma laboral que recoge Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca Real Decreto Ley es completa y equilibrada y contiene medidas incisivas y de aplicación inmediata, al objeto de establecer un marco claro que contribuya a la gestión eficaz de las relaciones laborales y que facilite la creaciónde puestos de trabajo, así como la estabilidad en el empleo que necesita nuestro país.

Capítulo I Durante el Capítulo I sólo consta de artículos que intentan fomentar la formación profesional, aunque dudo mucho de su aplicabilidad en la empresa real. Capítulo II. Artículo 4. Contrato de trabajo por tiempo indefinido de apoyo a los emprendedores. Capítulo III. We absolutely loved staying in Kristie's beautiful jungle treehouse! We noticed and loved every little detail that she included in building and decorating the treehouse - so Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca, charming and delightful at every turn!

This experience made us feel like we were staying in a modern-day Swiss Family Robinson situation if you haven't watched that movie, it's a must-see classiccomplete with the awesome pulley system to bring up our bags, the cute solar-powered tiki torches around the lanai, the forest noises chickens, insects, birds, etc. We also created a little "living Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca by pulling one of the outside chairs and table into the main room with the upholstered chair along the sliding glass door - great for playing cards and eating together.

This spot is relatively close to the Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park, Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca is a good thing for travelers to know so they can plan a fun outing.

What can we say but it is a fabulous hideaway! The build itself is so well done and adorned beautifully. The temperature was perfect the two days we were there, so much that we skipped going out to just lay around and enjoy the quiet and solitude! The treehouse was clean and stocked with everything you need for your stay minus your food. The little treats were a lovely surprise.

We found interesting books and a Adelgazar 72 kilos game to help us relax.

Communication was responsive and excellent. This is one of those places you will never Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca staying in so just go ahead and book it. Highly recommend!! A beautiful stay from the moment we stepped into the magical fern forest. The treehouse was very well constructed, convenient, comfortable, and a childhood dream come true. Jay was there when I arrived to show me around the property and explain how I might get the most enjoyment out of my stay.

The cabin was beautiful and cozy even on a chilly December night, and Jay and Stephanie had even thoughtfully included a Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca sky map in the cabin's amenities so I could name the dazzling stars that were visible each evening well, at least some of them!

This was Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca perfect place for solitude, reflection, and relaxation. We had an amazing stay Stephanie and Jay's Homesteader Cabin! The cabin was a lovely retreat in an beautiful setting.

The views were stunning during the day and especially at night with all of the stars. We will definitely be coming back! This cabin is nothing short of magical. The location is very convenient to Joshua Tree National Park and everything the downtown has to offer! We look forward to returning to this incredibly serene place.

Thank you Stephanie and Jay! I miss it already. Would recommend this wonderful place to anyone who is creative and seeks an authentic getaway.

I was there in mid-June, and it's definitely very hot, so come prepared for that. The porch photos don't do the wrap Adelgazar 72 kilos porch justice, it's divine, and the outhouse is very luxurious, in fact.

Stephanie and Jay go out of their way to keep you informed about things to do and make sure you're safe and happy. Other tips to travel goers-- the way out there is all sand, so if you have some fancy low-rider car, watch out. I went for 10 days alone I'm a woman and felt nurtured, safe and blissfully happy the whole time. There Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca a stereo-- I brought portable speakers and was very happy with that. There are a lot of magazines to read, but really, Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca probably spend most of your time blissing out on the porch.

I hope to come again! Picturesque and quintessential Joshua Tree homesteading. If you can make it for any astronomical events do so. Their cabin is a little desert oasis. Definitely want to come back again! Words cannot Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca how wonderful our stay at this cabin was. The sunset, the starry sky, and the surrounding desert wildlife is astonishing. We are addicted to this place, and are returning as often as possible!

Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca

Stephanie and Jay are wonderful hosts- and the cabin has great reading material on the coffee table! I recommend! This place goes above and beyond what you see in the pictures! We could not have asked for a better stay. Alex and Dennis Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca terrific; Incredibly hospitable and enjoyable to be around.

The pool and everything were always kept up, the view was spectacular, and the vibe was amazing. Thank you Alex and Dennis!!! A true diamond. Very peaceful and even better than the pictures!!!

Hard to believe It was an amazing experience to enjoy the great view, sundowner and the cozy place. Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca patio is another plus. Perfect communication and details have been another extra plus. Thank you so much DnA sharing your amazing place!!! This has definitely been our favourite Air BnB. Everything about the pool house has been carefully thought about and designed. We Adelgazar 50 kilos using the pool and hot tub and we were lucky enough to have it to ourselves for the week.

Dennis and Alex are excellent hosts and were so welcoming. They were also brilliant at communicating quickly and offering help when needed.

The private living space behind the pool house was lovely and we enjoyed using the BBQ most evenings. I can't recommend this place enough! If we are ever in LA again, we will definitely be back. Truly a wonderful location that has to be experienced. Very helpful and wonderful to work with. If you are staying in the area check them out.

We stayed three nights in DnA s pool house. We booked the house very spontaneous but the communication with DnA was Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca and uncomplicated.

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The apartment is equipped with everything you need and the outside area is just awesome. Instead of visiting downtown LA we decided to spent one day at the pool.

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Contrary to the busy and huge city the pool house is an oasis of calm and relax. We would love to stay there again soon! Es war alles super, ich fand es sogar viel besser als auf den Bildern. Die Aussicht Es war alles perfekt, viel dank Alex. Excelente atención de Vince. Muy buena ubicación y con lo necesario para estar muy cómodos. Yo regresaría. Vince's place was great, it exceeded Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca expectations. It was a modern,cozy and comfortable place.

We noticed that there was a missing item that the house needed and Zohra promptly replaced it in the house. Everything we needed Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca available to us, and the house had a fantastic setup for our stay of 3 people. Air mattress and bed sheets are all available.

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Thanks for the stay! What a gem! A relaxing little haven in LA. Very clean and had everything you could think you might need and then some. Even a little toy baby stroller for my daughter to play with. The pool was the cherry on top. We loved our stay! The backyard with pool was a great place to hang out. Vince went to extra mile to make sure we were comfortable. We will be back! Vince's place was amazing! Beautiful concrete floors, beautiful professional style kitchen, amazing home and pool!

Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca was four young woman in my party and it was perfect for us. I was blown away by the amenities and how large the pool was! And deep too! The home was so beautifully clean! Not a spot anywhere. The bathroom has an amazing corner shower Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca the living room and bedroom have strong AC units if needed. There are actually 4 different seating areas outside. Vince was so quick Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca respond and he reached out a number of times to check on Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca.

Plenty of clean lobbies and towels to keep four long Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca women set for 4 days. I will be going back! Recomiendo mucho el tour. Nuestra estancia he Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca cual lo esperamos. Muy recomendable. Darrell's place is just magical. Especially the garden at night. Everything was perfect and very well organized. We won't forget the two night we spent my boyfriend and I in the Pirates of Caribbean Getaway.

Darrell's vintage store too was the most beautiful and furnished we've ever been. Pirates of the Caribbean is an amazing respite in the hills of Topanga. This is our second time staying here and words can not describe the magic and beauty of this oasis. Darrell is a great host and Hidden Treasures - his store in Topanga - is a great place to spend a day exploring.

Thanks again for a wonderful stay! The bed was comfy, the sound system was good, plenty of quality cookware for our needs, the big double hammock was lush, the double shower heads were great and the jacuzzi was warm. What else would you want? We didn't have any special requests or needs, so we only saw him on the day we arrived and the day we left, but he assured us that he'd be available if we needed anything.

We were happy to have our time at Darrell's and would consider staying with him again. This was a great tour of Prague with a very helpful guide and a good pace. We also really appreciated the recommendations for other places to go.

This was a wonderful tour. Sara went out of her way to tell us fascinating anecdotes and stories and present historical information in a very accessible way. She is lovely and warm and passionate about Prague. The tour was thoughtfully planned and well organised. Highly recommended! The entire space was spotless and thoughtfully decorated, and the outside patio offered a beautiful view.

We ran into Jakub once who was very friendly and accommodating, and we also greatly enjoyed the company of the family cat. This place is absolutely serene and I would love to stay again! Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca were so excited to stay at this gorgeous place. Unfortunately, we had a very negative experience. Within the first hour, we saw huge carpenter ants in the room. A few were in the bed. Michele was so nice as to go buy us a few ant traps. We set them and left for dinner. When we returned, everything looked clear.

Then, as we were getting ready for bed, there was a Daddy Long Leg spider on my husbands chest and three more carpenter ants in the BED!!! At midnight, we left 2 Perdue Adelgazar 72 kilos. This is the most disappointing Airbnb experiences we've ever had.

Maria was there to greet us and was very sweet and helpful. The place itself is really incredible. A great location, in a quiet neighborhood but close to Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca and bars, and a short drive into downtown Asheville. The space was gorgeous, clean and inviting.

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I would recommend their listing to anyone looking for a peaceful stay. The location was perfect for me as well. Thank you again Jakub and Maria! This is such a lovely little spot to come back to after spending the day exploring the Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca of Asheville. There was plenty of street parking at the house and the hosts responded quickly to any of our messages.

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Rob kindly met us and let us into cottage at Highly recommend this property. I highly recommend this stunning Airbnb- we loved it!

It is in a wonderful location, close to West Hollywood. The space is decorated beautifully with lovely art and thoughtful touches. Thank you so much for hosting us Robert and we hope to return again soon. The guesthouse was beautiful and perfectly located in the hills just outside the Hollywood area. Would thoroughly recommend to anyone looking to stay. Een heel leuk Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca op een mooie plek in Los Angeles! Vlak bij Hollywood, en dicht bij uitzichtpunten over de stad.

Het Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca was netjes en schoon en heel gaaf ingericht. Heerlijk kunnen slapen! Robert is een fijne gastheer die je makkelijk en Adelgazar 20 kilos kunt bereiken als er wat is. Nous avons séjourner en mai dernier dans l'appartement de Robert.

C'était notre première expérience avec Airbnb et nous avons été enchanté par le cadre fidèle aux photos, la propreté irréprochable et l'accueil chaleureux de Rob.

Nous recommandons vivement son appartement. Great place to stay! Food, Safeway, hiking, and other places of need are just a short drive away. Check in was a breeze and when we got to the cabin there was snacks and a handy book of things to do ready Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca us.

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Between and its competence was distributed to sixteen regional or provincial centers. This scheme survived the Civil war and was secured by the Law on the Health of Mothers and Children. Bythe highest number of secondary health centers was reached, around Public health activities were greatly aided perdiendo peso two brand-new agencies, depending on the single francoist party, the 'National Movement': Auxilio Social the social relief agency and Sección Femenina the Women's Section of the former fascist party, the Falange.

It came to administer infant centers, maternal welfare centers, maternity hospitals, soup kitchens for pregnant and breastfeeding women, homes for orphans and foundlings, day nurseries, and other centers. In connection with one another, from September on this network distributed the American social aid program a project of the national Catholic Welfare Conference of the U.

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The educational service was carried out by a volunteer corps that, after a basic training period, were sent to towns and villages on missions of inspection, vaccination, delivery of medications and clothing, and basic public health training.

The WS was instrumental Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca the campaign against nutritional disorders run by the Department of Public Health: between and volunteers made more than one and half million home visits and provided care and Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca for aboutchildren. InWS established a program of mobile training sessions in maternal and child welfare and health that reached out Adelgazar 10 kilos thousands of persons in rural areas.

The Compulsory Health Insurance program started in took advantage of the technical plans and assets of the Compulsory Maternity Insurance, instituted in This latter program assumed responsibility for postpartum and postnatal medical care. In this service was provided through 12 clinics in its own and 60 associate private centers, while in it counted on public owned clinics and 9 maternity hospitals, all of them incorporated within the Compulsory Insurance System.

Between and the Health Insurance program managed 8 maternity hospitals, baby clinics and 99 maternity clinics Bernabeu-Mestre and Perdiguero-Gil, Figure 4.

The establishment of social insurance measures for childbirth meant that medicine approached territories where it had previously not been active. While the Maternity Insurance program was in effect during the Republican government, professional midwives continued to be the sole practitioners responsible for attending normal home childbirths, although they were to lose this preminence with the Regulations for Health Services under the Compulsory Health Insurance system Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca January This new institution eliminated the midwives' independence, reducing them to physician's helpers in all cases of birth and fomented institutional deliveries through the provision of free hospital stays of up to 8 days for normal births.

A plan was designed in the mids to construct 'maternity residences' in fact, maternal-infant hospitals to 'bring all births into hospital, and prevent a single beneficiary mother from giving birth in the unsuitable setting of her own home' Asistencia,p.

At the begining of the Insurance program, its regulations stipulated that they should hold pediatric clinics for three days a week, and infant welfare clinics on the other three working days, a division set aside in This single aspect of the insurance for children's medicine shaped the development of the specialty of Pediatrics that subsequently became a hospital based Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca, and lost its links to child hygiene. The contents of the program for popularizing scientific health Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca.

The title of this section comes from a statement made by a welfare municipal doctor of the city of Madrid in 'It is an urgent need to guide the ignorant and to stop those [ And these words attracts our attention because they reveal the inner rationale of the program for popularizing infant health.

Popular customs and beliefs were 'the real bad thing' which opposed children health Bernabeu, a, p. Such opinions came out of a gendered understanding of women as pure biological bodies, sole guardians of their children and homes, by God's will, and weak minds prone to error: 'Women's brain is the best soil to allow for the flowering of this kind of aberrations; it is always Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca to accept wonders, marvels, supernatural schemes, wild plans brought about by ignorance and fanaticism, by stupid vanity and by Adelgazar 50 kilos stubbornness' Salcedo,p.

Franco's dictatorship recovered such perspective of women Bernabeu, b, Jiménez Lucena, Ruiz Somavilla and Castellanos Guerrero,p.

Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca

Same contents and periodization have been shown in a recent work on school texts for Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca teaching' de Haro, From a medical perspective clear dangers loomed, grounded on the ambivalent consideration of popular culture, innocent because of its ignorance and not innocent because of its radically strange contents.

Ignorance in itself was an innocent feature, as Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca as it stemmed from the natural distance i. At the same time it was deemed guilty due to its 'indelible stigma' of stubbornness, that caused the most ferocious resistance to expert advise Salcedo,pp.

This consideration of popular culture put it far away from medical counsels, and the hugest obstacle in the medicalization process, as mothers would always prefer lay aid instead of sound medical expertise Salcedo,p. The worst risk in deliveries, particularly among poor people, stemmed from the intervention of "wise neighbors [ The cultural closeness, "the same level of instruction", allowed the practice of those women, called saludadoraswho kept "clinics" for children and who, according to doctors complaints, participated a great deal in the solution of health problems of mothers and children.

Perdiguero,p. In some other cases, the population is referred to as a waste land, where, thanks to the plough made by medical advice, the seeds of health would flourish Bravo, In this context, mothers and women are not considered so much as the enemies, but as the privileged helpers of doctors in the care of Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca and to highlight health practices throughout the whole population Tolosa, A delicate question was the religious load of many elements of the antagonist popular culture, due to the aggressive catholicism of the times between the 19 th and 20 th centuries.

Another, more pragmatic alternative was to accept traditional customs but La buena dieta a change of meaning.

For instance, Benavente, discussing about the evil's eye, offered mothers to christianize their beliefs, by substituting fancy amulets fastened to child's clothes by 'a wallet with the Saint Gospels' to protect their children against diseases such as croup Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca cerebral palsy, that were real threats to health instead of "the eyes of suspected witches" Benavente, b. The intimacy of families became the target of the educating campaign in search of changing values that, according to the moralizing tradition of hygiene, leaned on confidence in and compliance with all authorities, including medical authority: expert advice should be followed uncritically.

To make it real and in the absence 2 Dieta para semanas 13 kilos en bajar other means, a military procedure was sought: 'the practice of command, expedient and infallible' Criado,p. These testimonies come from the time of the first military dictatiship undergone by Spain during Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca 20 th century, albeit Criado, professor of Pediatrics at the Univerisity of Madrid, was a previous defender of this model of education.

Inin a lecture about harmful nursing, he made clear that 'the essential core of education is [ And metaphorically, in the case of health education, doctors play the role of parents. Under Franco's rule, such view was obviously very common Bernabeu, b.

The limits assigned to people's education show its null emancipating character. In The mother and childone of the journals that convey this message of medicalization, Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca speaking about 'domestic medicine' in caution against an excessive illustration of mothers was present; the aim is to take Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca to accept medical intervention, not to empower them with a 'deadly training, a dangerous confidence [in themselves]' Pereira, Doctors' help had to be sought as soon as the slightest change in health is seen, establishing a program much more ambitious than ever since medical popularizing was born in the 18 th century.

And since public charity allows access to medical care, poverty should not be taken for excuse Salcedo,p. The 'maximum program', so to speak, for medicalization of childhood would include the hiring of a doctor by each family, a certified physician who would attend delivery, order him hygienic rules of nursing, especially the feeding routines, as well as, later on, to dispose over physical exercises and sea baths Rojo,pp.

It is a program well suited to a commercial context of medical practice, restricted as a rule to the well-off layers of society.

A first-class example is furnished by the question of the wet-nurses.

Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca

Among some class of families, the employment of a wet-nurse for the breeding of a new born was a sign of status, as exemplified by an old custom of the Spanish Royal Family; on the other side of the social spectrum, to hold a position as wet-nurse in a foundling home was a sure job for women. Probably most city councils in the last years of the 19 th century secured grants or pensions to feed infants to some poor families.

Medicine concerned distinctly about wet-nurses of both kinds, although with the single Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca of putting them under professional control.

Since the last years of the 18 th century, medical literature constructed an all-black image of women engaged in wet-nursing, as 'bearers of faulty traditional knowledge' Buchan,p. This basic condition explained the high infant mortality registered in institutions and, conversely, it was taken for granted that the introduction of a wet-nurse in a bourgeois home would lend a negative outcome. Here, however, medicine found a contradiction in the spread of this supposedly bad habit among the so-called accommodated classes that generated their Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca.

Therefore, medicine had to resign to the fact that wet-nurses came out of need, for Dietas faciles was 'quite a few Dietas rapidas that lacked enough milk in quantity or qualityalthough it was firmly stated that new born should not leave the home Peiró,; Cirera,p.

Nevertheless, the 'wet-nursing industry' was only replaced by the 'hygienic milk industry'. In the and editions of his Catecismo de Puericultura, Juan Bosch still defended the employment of wet-nurses at home, engaged through a scrupulous selection under medical advise. And that was the point, the introduction of a doctor into the process of child raising.

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Do you lose weight by not eating after 7pm. Dieta para disminuir cintura. Dieta japonesa para adelgazar rapido. Que puedo tomar para adelgazar casero. Cuantas veces hay q comer al dia para adelgazar. Meriendas en la dieta disociada. Adelgazar muchos kilos into pounds. Science and social persuasion in the medicalization of childhood in 19th- and 20th-century Spain. The article explores how childhood visits to doctors first became routine in Spain.

The introduction of new models of prenatal care, childbirth, and childrearing required the extension of academic medicine into a terrain traditionally occupied by practitioners of popular medicine. Focusing on Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca status quo for most of the population in the final third of the nineteenth century, the study examines the repercussion of the era's scientific outreach campaigns expressions of harsh criticism of what popular culture had constructed Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca the spread of free health assistance.

Keywords: childrearing; popular medicine; popularization; Spain; nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Ina commercial directory, The Yearly Health Book of Vanity medical weight loss duarte careported the La buena dieta and addresses of Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca 14, doctors. Only 10 of them were identified as pediatricians, none of them living in big cities, and as few as a dozen were listed as obstetricians.

In fact, the list did not even include existing university professors of gynaecology or of pediatrics, not even those professors of Pediatrics from the Universities of Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Saragossa, all of them prolific writers in their matter.

However, bythe same source shows that What do these figures tell us? Professional specialization started as a subordinate practice to general medical work inasmuch as it was not able to produce a sufficient income for a doctor by itself alone, thence the little interest of specialized doctors to be known as such.

However, forty years later, the recognition as a specialist identifies an autonomous professional endeavour and there is a social visibility of this professional profile: specialists have found a public. The process that generated the medical specialty of Pediatrics, or Children's Medicine, was made of different elements. On the other hand, the birth and development of Pediatrics has to be seen in connection with a certain social conception of childhood, which implied the consideration of this time of human life to be worth to the families, to the nation an to the state Ballester and Balaguer, This was achieved through the spread of medical care to the masses of the population, where it displaced other forms of care, traditionally based on popular wisdom, in situations such as pregnancy, delivery and child raising.

Most of these processes had been traditionally opaque to male practioners, and now would turn under the domain of certified medicine. There was the Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca to create a public for the specialized practice, as well as to build the institutions welfare devices, social insurances for maternity and for illnesses and to produce the number of professionals that had to serve them.

This paper was born from the assumption made by both authors that a precise outlook on this complex situation could be gained from the union of their previous independent work on the subject Rodríguez Ocaña, Ortiz and García-Duarte, ; Perdiguero,; Perdiguero and Bernabeu,and ; Rodríguez Ocaña, and We hope that this common synthesis will make easier the intellection of the process that shaped Pediatrics as a medical specialty in Spain around the turn from the 19 th to the 20 th centuries.

Some basic arguments and a starting point. As it has been said, to take for granted the visit to Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca doctor as a routine procedure demanded a substitution of agents and practices in child care, introducing a scientific image of both 'chid' and 'mother' as a dominant feature in the realm of popular culture Apple, and This Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca a prominent aim in the turning of the 19 th to the 20 th century in Spain due to the rise Adelgazar 20 kilos the professional class of physicians, according to the development of a bourgeois society, the relevance of the so-called 'regenerationist' movement and the extended consciousness of infant and child mortality as a social problem among elites.

A combination of means was put forth to reach such aim: 1 a harsh, non-stop campaign of criticism against what was constructed as 'popular culture'. Popular practices were discredited La buena dieta opposed as contrary to health; 2 the offer of scientific guidance and professional control of pregnancy, delivery and child upbringing Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca free dispensaries sponsored by city councils and by private philanthropic actions; 3 the management of child breeding by using sterilised milk under control of health experts, at low costs; and, 4 free access to physicians in case of need through the same welfare institutions.

Institutional practice was intended, in all cases, to be of educational nature, that is to say actively opposed Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca old ways of behavior through new routines i. Health education 1 including the willingness to accept pediatricians did seem the royal road to the defence of the nation when the political leit motiv centered on 'regeneration', a key-word highlighted by the military defeat imposed by the US and the loss of Puerto Rico, Cuba and the Philippines, and the problems of social divide brought about by the rise of working classes.

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To cope with this situation, reformism was born including the conceptualising of the relations between medicine and society known as "Social Medicine" Rodríguez Ocaña, and Spanish medicine would take over the task Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca 'peacemaker' among the great masses of population.

Such a position as high councelors had already been acquired by some medical institutions such as the Royal Academy of Medicine or the Spanish Society of Hygiene, groups controlled by members of the political oligarchy of the 'Restoration period', and was exerted upon the field of urban planning and sanitary reform Rodríguez Ocaña, But if in this field the leading position of doctors had to giving to that of architects and engineers, Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca well as in the field of social insurance lent to lawyers, actuaries or economists, in the domain of child care only the expertise of teachers had to be included and that was always in a subordinate role.

Physicians were not left alone in such undertaking. The process of creation of a 'medicine for children' as a medical specialty was grounded upon certain Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca for practice and learning such as hospitals, university chairs and welfare centersupon networks of publications specialized journals and self-protecting networks such as professional societies.

This all the first happened in France and thereof spread to Spain along with Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca translations of the most important works or the review of recent publications in medical journals. Within the first decades of the 20 th Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca, a German influence of no lesser importance can be felt Seidler, ; La Berge, ; Klaus, At the Schools of Medicine, this knowledge about children was initially integrated within Obstetrics under the name of 'Delivery clinics and diseases of women and children' as in the national regulation of or 'Obstetrics and Pathology of women and children' as in the regulation of From on, they became independent as 'Children Diseases', or 'Pediatrics' after The most notorious director during the first years of this institution was Mariano Benaventethe doctor of the children of the aristocracy of the court and the first Spanish specialist of Pediatrics, according to Granjel His panel of clients was inherited by Manuel Tolosa Latourthe promoter of an association for the building of sea sanatoria, following instructions of the Adelgazar 40 kilos International Conference for the Protection of Childhood held in Brussels, In the first and only row was opened in Chipiona, province of Cadiz.

Wards for children were opened in several Poor Hospitals, particularly in those linked with Schools of Medicine since the middle of s Figure 1.

Ambulatory facilities were created according to learning needs, although they kept a discontinuous profile. At least five other hospitals and a lot of dispensaries for children were open before in several cities on private charitable basis.

At the municipal level, the welfare schemes beneficencia municipal of some big cities included specialized services for children. In Madrid, consulting rooms for sick children were opened perdiendo peso and in some of their relief centres, that evolved into a Municipal Infant Welfare Institute in An atmosphere of social alarm over infant mortality in Spain can be found in a vast number of publications that used demographic data regularly available from the Civil Registry like Aguirre,on Madrid; Borobio,on Zaragoza or Comenge,on Barcelona; cf.

Gómez Redondo, Until the statistical virtuosity of Marcelino Pascuamost of these publications, directed to the general public, shared the open aim of promoting certain medical and social actions by using a 'rhetoric of catastrophe', so to speak.

An example was the report on infant mortality of Madrid Informe acerca de la mortalidad infantil de Madrid, sus principales causas y medios de combatirla presented by Rafael Ulecia in to the City Health Board.

Traditional patterns of mother and child care. Our main sources of knowledge about traditional practices related Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca the health of mothers, infants and children apart from a number of remaining tools and objects are justly those belonging to the authors implied in the medicalization campaign that we are describing.

Therefore, once we know their purpose, they must be dealt with caution. There are texts full of information such as Mother and Child. Scientific doctrine and popular mistakes in Obstetrics and Gynecology Madrid, Its author, Enrique Salcedo Ginestal, sent an inquiry to all certified practitioners living in villages and many of the cities, asking Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca the collection of all kinds of 'faults, superstitions, sayings and popular proverbs' related to his topic.

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In opposition to folklorists, these collections lent no positive value to popular flavor; moreover, they sought to expose the 'ridiculous side [ He led a pitiless fight against 'lies, faults, intentions to cheat' Salcedo,p. XII that they found everywhere in the popular world. Mariano Benavente, already known, recalled his first years as medical practitioner in a little Castilian village, Villarejo de Salvanes, circathat the commonest children diseases were 'dribble, strained stool, and evil eye' la baba, el asiento colado y el mal de ojo ; Benavente, a.

The evil eye was carefully studied by Rafael Salillas using the answers to the inquiry circulated by the Ateneo Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca Madrid La buena dieta the field of popular habits around three most characteristics facts of life: birth, marriage and death at the beginning of the 20 th century Perdiguero,p.

Dribble and strained stool were also the most habitual illness of childhood in urban popular quarters. The strained stool Bernabeu, and a, p. A Madrid municipal doctor emphasized that 'to overcome the strained stool' levantar el asiento was the highest title of honor of the lay female practitioners saludadoras that were active Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca low-class neighborhoods Aguirrepp.

These 'masssages' of folk therapy were introduced in medicine, given a physio-pathological explanation and included as empirical procedures within other expertise Salcedo,p. The dribble, included all inflammations and suppurations as its main feature was the flow of harmful liquids or humors.

In times of teething, dribble was synonymous to diarrhoea, and both were thought to represent a healthy condition to the extent of Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca or provoking them by artificial means or syrups in case of absence.

Certified medicine intended to integrate these notions under the label of 'accidents of teething' to show the danger of developing or ignoring diarrhoea. Nevertheless, a healthy meaning for diarrhoea was held among mothers until further on the 20 th century Huergo,pp. Could we say that the relationship between scientific culture and popular culture was of absolute opposition?

At first sight, it would seem so; but, we just pointed out some bridges in theory and practice. The lack of a parallel evolution of popular and medical culture had been pointed out as the cause of differences in meanings: 'in the medical profession, concepts are born [ At the same time, changing certified medicine's thoughts about infant nutrition as, for instance, on wet-nurses, as studied later in this paperVanity medical weight loss duarte ca that lay people practices, sanctioned by general customs or traditions, exerted themselves influence on proposals that came from the ranks of science but nothing at all strangers to the social and cultural context.

At the end of 19 th century rapid changes into medical conceptions generated a conflict with slow-motion concepts and traditions that were an obstacle to the development of the former, particularly in relation to the building of a professional medical career.

A lucid statement of shows that 'in many cases, and behind the back of doctors, the evil eye carries off the faults in the management of nursing because children develop illnesses of a very difficult or impossible cure' Valera,p.

The obvious conclusion Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca as well as in was the need to enforce a hygienic education, a 'preventive medicine or health prophylaxis' Canoura Balado,p. Puericulture as a path towards the jurisdiction of medicine. The goal of Puericulture or infant welfare was to make available to the public scientific rules for mother and child care, especially those related with feeding regimens.

This was to become the scientific core of the professional expression of a campaign to prevent infant mortality that, although it Adelgazar 20 kilos under the direction and almost exclusive competence of doctors, turned by the s into a niche for subordinate mainly female health occupations, such as paramedic auxiliaries, and midwives.

However, Puericulture was the first Spanish medical specialty that followed a fixed program of learning and counted on a particular training center the National School of Puericulture, created in and opened since Health Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca in search of the standard training required by Social Medicine between and or would-be pediatricians Fat loss dinner meal looked for regular training on prevention and hygiene were their usual students.

It should first be noted that the initial Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca doctors sustained efforts to promote breastfeeding. However, Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca effect was opposite to that which was expected: the steady spread of bottle-feeding. Artificial feeding technologies were an immediate priority at maternal and child welfare centres. As they involved a set of instruments and rules external to and separate from women's bodies, they reinforced the technical orientation of infant hygiene, while at the same time such tendency became more suitable to social needs arising from the industrial tendency that drove women outside the home Wolf, Puericulture centres started from the Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca of welfare centres especially free Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca dispensaries, which could also provide other food for infants and sometimes also to mothers, as well as other traditional charitable benefits such as clothes or even money and health education goals.

According to what has been said, artificial feeding technologies were an immediate priority that helped them to attract a clientele Figure 2. In Spain milk depots first appeared inand baby clinics in Almost all centers provided sterilised milk delivery, as did the first such center established in Madrid by Rafael Ulecia Rodríguez Ocaña, Ortiz and García-Duarte, Figure 3.

At the peak of public child welfare Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca in the mid-nineteen fifties there were fewer than centres in the entire country, a figure far below those in other European countries: France had more than 4. Most of them were devoted to infant care e.

The educational function of child welfare centers was most clearly demonstrated in the creation of Schools for Mothers, whose goal was to provide women, school girls and mothers with training in maternal and child hygiene. During the Republic each depot was required to hold weekly lectures for mothers during six months of the year, and to organize required courses for girls at Municipal Schools.

In it was estimated that about 18, mothers and 6, students had attended lectures in Madrid since the start of the programs in and respectively. General public was also targeted through health posters, radio broadcasting and films, as it is shown in another paper in this issue.

From the middle of the 19 th century, there existed also a formal teaching in schools, particularly addressed to females, aimed to the strengthening of a 'domestic moral' so to speak. This teaching was strongly implemented during the Francoist regime until under the explicit title of 'home teaching'. A recent study on its contents and aims has been Vanity medical weight loss duarte ca by using as sources a great number of approved school texts de Haro, As Table 1 shows, however, upbringing was not relevant among its priorities, clearly tending toward more general hygienic subjects on housing, personal cleanliness or clothing.

Especially afterthere flooded a vast number of publications that gave 'counsels to mothers', a constant albeit decreasing production until mids. For instance, Practical advices on the health of infantswritten by Vidal Solares, had ten editions between andplus more than fifteen of a shorter version called Instructive dialogue on children's hygieneor Instructions on the health of infants between and

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